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Son montuno (meaning literally "son from the mountains") is a slower variety of son with a deep insistent swing associated with the mountainous interior and eastern region of Cuba. It is one of the first Cuban forms to include a second improvised section, the montuno, for vocal and instrumental solos with rhythmic backing. Son began in the rural Oriente province in the late 19th century, was brought to Havana in the early 1900s and spread through the working class, incorporating African-derived elements such as rumba and Spanish-descended such as the guajira, by the '20s appealing to Cubans at all levels. It spread to Puerto Rico in the '30s, whence migration took it to the USA (though by then it was a ballroom fad which Americans called the rumba or rhumba). From the mid-'20s to the beginning of the '40s, three bands represented the development of son in Cuba: Septeto Habanero, Ignacio Piñeiro's Septeto Nacional and the conjunto of Arsenio Rodríguez (1911-1970). By the early '40s Arsenio modified son montuno from the old rural form into a newer style. Guajira is a Spanish-Cuban country music form close to the son montuno performed by guajiros (peasants) with lyrics that often deal with rural nostalgia or patriotic topics. Typical instrumentation includes guitar, tres and percussion. Three Cuban singers who helped popularise guajira are Cheo Marquetti (1909-1967), Guillermo Portabales (1911-1970), known for his elegant guajira de salón style, and Celina González. A notable modern interpreter of the genre is Henry Fiol. Guaracha is a lively musical genre with racy, topical and satirical lyrics said to have originated in 18th century Havana brothels. As with the son montuno, it acquired a second section for improvisation. After falling from favour, the guaracha experienced a revival from the '30s and became a regular element of the salsa repertoire. One of the genre's greatest exponents was Celia Cruz (1925-2003), hailed as "Guarachera de Cuba". - John Child